1 Also I [Gabriel] in the first year of Darius the Mede, even I, stood to confirm and to strengthen him.
2 And now will I shew thee the truth. Behold, there shall stand up yet three kings in Persia [Cambyses, Smerdis, Darius];
and the fourth [Xerxes] shall be far richer than they all: and by his strength through his riches he shall stir up all against the realm of Grecia.
3 And a mighty king [Alexander the Great] shall stand up, that shall rule with great dominion, and do according to his will.
4 And when he [Alexander the Great] shall stand up, his kingdom shall be broken, and shall be divided toward the four winds of heaven; and not to his posterity, nor according to his dominion which he ruled: for his kingdom shall be plucked up, even for others beside those.
5 And the king of the south [Ptolemy] shall be strong, and one of his [Alexander’s]; and he [Seleucus] shall be strong above him [Ptolemy], and have dominion; his dominion shall be a great dominion.
6 And in the end of years they shall join themselves together; for the king’s [Ptolemy Philadelphus‘] daughter [Berenice] of the south shall come to the king of the north [Antiochus Theos] to make an agreement: but she [Berenice] shall not retain the power of the arm; neither shall he [Antiochus Theos] stand, nor his arm: but she shall be given up, and they that brought her,
7 But out of a branch of her roots shall one stand up [Ptolemy Euergetes] in his estate, which shall come with an army, and shall enter into the fortress of the king of the north [Seleucia], and shall deal against them, and shall prevail:
8 And shall also carry captives into Egypt their gods, with their princes, and with their precious vessels of silver and of gold; and he shall continue more years than the king of the north [Seleucus Callinicus].
9 So the king of the south [Ptolemy Euergetes] shall come into his kingdom, and shall return into his own land.
10 But his sons [Seleucus Ceraunus, Antiochus the Great] shall be stirred up, and shall assemble a multitude of great forces: and one [Antiochus the Great] shall certainly come, and overflow, and pass through: then shall he return, and be stirred up, even to his fortress [Pelusium].
11 And the king of the south [Ptolemy Philopator] shall be moved with choler, and shall come forth and fight with him, even with the king of the north [Antiochus the Great]: and he shall set forth a great multitude; but the multitude shall be given into his hand.
12 And when he [Ptolemy Philopator] hath taken away the multitude, his heart shall be lifted
13 For the king of the north [Antiochus the Great] shall return, and shall set forth a multitude greater than the former, and shall certainly come after certain years with a great army and with much riches.
14 And in those times there shall many [Philip, Antiochus] stand up against the king of the south [Ptolemy Epiphanes]:
also the robbers of thy people [the Romans] shall exalt themselves to establish the vision; but they shall fall.
15 So the king of the north [Antiochus the Great] shall come, and cast up a mount, and take the most fenced cities [Sidon]: and the arms of the south shall not withstand, neither his chosen people [Scopas – Greek mercenaries], neither shall there be any strength to withstand.
16 But he [Rome – Pompey] that cometh against him [Antiochus Asiaticus] shall do according to his own will, and none shall stand before him: and he shall stand in the glorious land [Judea], which by his hand shall be consumed.
17 He [Rome – Julius Caesar] shall also set his face to enter with the strength of his whole kingdom [Alexander’s kingdom],
and upright ones [the Jews] with him [Julius Caesar]; thus shall he do:
and he shall give him the daughter of women [Cleopatra], corrupting her: but she shall not stand on his side, neither be for him.
18 After this shall he [Julius Caesar] turn his face unto the isles [the Bosphorus], and shall take many: but a prince for his own behalf shall cause the reproach offered by him to cease; without his own reproach he shall cause it to turn upon him.
19 Then he [Julius Caesar] shall turn his face toward the fort of his own land [city of Rome]: but he shall stumble and fall, and not be found.
20 Then shall stand up in his estate a raiser of taxes [Augustus Caesar] in the glory of the kingdom:
but within few days he [Augustus Caesar] shall be destroyed, neither in anger, nor in battle.
21 And in his estate shall stand up a vile person [Tiberius Caesar], to whom they [Romans] shall not give the honour of the kingdom: but he shall come in peaceably, and obtain the kingdom by flatteries.
22 And with the arms of a flood shall they be overflown from before him [Tiberius Caesar], and shall be broken;
yea, also the prince of the covenant [Jesus Christ].
23 And after the league made with him [Rome] he shall work deceitfully: for he shall come up, and shall become strong with a small people.
24 He [Rome] shall enter peaceably even upon the fattest places of the province; and he shall do that which his fathers have not done, nor his fathers’ fathers; he shall scatter among them the prey, and spoil, and riches: yea,
and he shall forecast his devices against [or from] the strong holds [City of Rome], even for a time [360 prophetic days].
25 And he [Rome – Octavian] shall stir up his power and his courage against the king of the south [Mark Antony] with a great army; and the king of the south shall be stirred up to battle [Battle of Actium] with a very great and mighty army; but he [Mark Antony] shall not stand: for they shall forecast devices against him.
26 Yea, they that feed of the portion of his meat shall destroy him, and his army shall overflow: and many shall fall down slain.
27 And both these kings’ [Antony, Octavian] hearts shall be to do mischief, and they shall speak lies at one table; but it shall not prosper: for yet the end shall be at the time appointed.
28 Then shall he [Octavian] return into his land with great riches;
and his [Rome – Vespasian, Titus] heart shall be against the holy covenant; and he shall do exploits [destruction of Judea], and return to his own land.
29 At the time appointed [End Date 330 AD] he [Rome – Constantine] shall return, and come toward the south [Constantinople toward Egypt];
but it shall not be as the former [triumphant return from Egypt], or as the latter [triumphant return from Judea].
30 For the ships of Chittim [the Vandals] shall come against him [Rome]:
therefore he [Rome] shall be grieved, and return,
and have indignation against the holy covenant [the Bible]: so shall he [the Papacy] do;
he [the Eastern Emperors] shall even return [return to Rome], and have intelligence with them [the Papacy] that forsake the holy covenant.
31 And arms shall stand on his [the Papacy] part,
and they [the Barbarians] shall pollute the sanctuary of strength [Rome],
and shall take away the daily sacrifice [Paganism],
and they [the Barbarians] shall place the abomination that maketh desolate [the Papacy].
32 And such as do wickedly against the covenant [the Bible] shall he [the Pope] corrupt by flatteries:
but the people that do know their God shall be strong, and do exploits.
33 And they that understand among the people shall instruct many: yet they shall fall by the sword, and by flame, by captivity, and by spoil, many days [1260 years].
34 Now when they shall fall, they [the Reformers] shall be holpen with a little help [Protestant Reformation]: but many shall cleave to them with flatteries.
35 And some of them [the Reformers] of under-standing shall fall, to try them, and to purge, and to make them white, even to the time of the end : because it is yet for a time appointed.
36 And the king [France] shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak [enact laws] marvellous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done.
37 Neither shall he [France] regard the God of his fathers, nor the desire of women [the marriage institution], nor regard any god [Atheism]: for he shall magnify himself above all.
38 But in his estate [in France] shall he honour the God of forces [goddess of Reason]: and a god whom his fathers knew not shall he honour with gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and pleasant things.
39 Thus shall he [France] do in the most strong holds with a strange god [goddess of Reason], whom he shall acknowledge and increase with glory: and he shall cause them to rule over many, and shall divide the land for gain.
40 And at the time of the end  shall the king of the south [the Mamelukes] push [battle of the Pyramids] at him [Napoleon]:
and the king of the north [The Ottoman Turks] shall come against him [Napoleon] like a whirlwind, with chariots [Turkish artillery], and with horsemen [Turkish calvary], and with many ships [British, Russian, Turkish Ships];
and he [the Ottoman Turks] shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass over.
41 He shall enter also into the glorious land [Palestine], and many countries shall be overthrown: but these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon.
42 He [the Ottoman Turks] shall stretch forth his hand also upon the countries: and the land of Egypt shall not escape.
43 But he [the Ottoman Turks] shall have power over the treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt: and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall be at his steps.
44 But tidings out of the east [Persia] and out of the north [Russia] shall trouble him [the Ottoman Turks]:
therefore he [the Ottoman Turks] shall go forth with great fury [Crimean War] to destroy, and utterly to make away many.
45 And he [Moslem nations] shall plant the tabernacles of his palace between the seas in the glorious holy mountain [Jerusalem]; yet he [Moslem nations] shall come to his end, and none shall help him.
a 538 BC
b 536 BC
c 534 BC
d 538 BC
e 536 – 529 BC
f 529 – 522 BC
g 522 – 521 BC
h 521 – 486 BC
i 490 BC
j 486 – 465 BC
k 480 BC
l 479 BC
m 336 BC
n 331 BC
o 323 BC
p 317 BC
q 310 BC
r 301 BC
s 305 – 285 BC
t 312 – 281 BC
u 261 – 246 BC
v 285 – 246 BC
w 246 BC
a 246 – 225 BC
b 246 – 221 BC
c 246 BC
d 226 – 223 BC
e 223 – 187 BC
f 219 BC
g 221 – 205 BC
h 217 BC
i 205 – 181 BC
j 200 BC
k 200 BC
a 65 BC
b Summer 63 BC
c 55 – 51 BC
d Spring 51 BC
e late 51 BC
f 7 Jan 49 BC
g 9 Aug 48 BC
h 28 Sep 48 BC
i 2 Oct 48 BC
j Spring 47 BC
k Summer 47 BC
l Jul 46 BC
m 15 Mar 44 BC
a 43 BC
b 23 Oct 42 BC
c Nov 42 BC
d 40 BC
e 36 BC
f 32 BC
g 31 BC
h 16 Jan 27 BC
i 19 Aug 14 AD
j 12 AD
k 14 AD
l 37 AD
m Spring 27 AD
n Autumn 27 AD
o Spring 31 AD
p 161 BC
q 31 BC – 330 AD [360 Years]
r 31 BC
a 330 AD
b 2 Sep 31 BC
c 40 BC
d 37 BC
e 32 BC
f 30 BC
g 66 – 70 AD
h 68 AD
i Jul 69 AD
j 70 AD
k 330 AD
l 22 May 337 AD
m 351 AD
n 428 – 468 AD
o 455 AD
p 457 AD
q 468 AD
a 493 AD
b 534 AD
c 538 AD
d 410 AD
e 455 AD
f 476 AD
g 508 AD
h 496 AD
i 507 AD
j 508 AD
k 533 AD
l 538 AD
m 538 – 1798 AD
n 1517 AD onwards
o 10 Feb 1798 AD
a 29Aug 1799 AD
b 1793 AD
c 1794 -1799 AD
d 1789 – 1799 AD
e 5 Mar 1798 AD
f 5 Jul 1798 AD
g 21 Jul 1798 AD
h 1 Aug 1798 AD
a 11 Sep 1798 AD
b 27 Feb 1799 AD
c 21 May 1799 AD
d 22 Aug 1799 AD
e 9 Nov 1799 AD
f 1799 AD
g 15 Jul 1801 AD
h 13 Mar 1801 AD
i 27 Jun 1801 AD
j 1805, 1811 AD
k 1806 – 1812 AD
l 1828 – 1829 AD
m 1829 AD
n 1833 AD
o 1853 – 1856 AD
p 11 Oct 1853 AD
q 28 Mar 1854 AD
r Sep 1854 AD
s 9 Sep 1855 AD
t 1878 AD
a Jun 1916 AD
|The Medo Persian Empire
a On the overthrow of Babylon, Darius the Mede was permitted to occupy the throne by the courtesy of his nephew Cyrus. Two years later Darius died and b Cyrus became sole monarch of the Persian Empire. In the c third year of Cyrus, (Dan 10:1) Daniel received the vision of chapters 11 and 12, of which chapter 10 is the introduction.
The angel, after stating that he had stood in the
After e Cyrus, three kings were to rise in the Persian Empire. These were: f Cambyses the son of Cyrus who conquered Egypt; g Smerdis an impostor who impersonated Cambyses dead brother, usurped the Persian throne but was assassinated by Darius; and h Darius Hystaspes who was defeated by the Greeks in i battle at Marathon.
The fourth king j Xerxes, reigned in Persia with greater power and riches than the previous kings. (Est 1:1,4)
In 480 BC Xerxes k invaded Greece with an immense army of well over 200,000 men, who had been gathered from all portions of his empire.
The Greeks, lead by the Spartans, were able to delay the Persian advance at the pass of Thermopylae for ten days. This gave the Greeks time to evacuate before Xerxes advanced into Attica and burned Athens.
The Greeks drew the Persians down the Greek coast and met them in a naval battle at Salamis. The Greek warships, commanded by the Athenian Themistocles, were heavier and better armed than the Persian fleet and the Persians were defeated at Salamis. Xerxes, fearing for his own safety, retired to Asia Minor. In the hurried retreat
The following year the remainder of the Persian army were defeated in l battle at Plataea by the Greek allies, of whom the Spartans were the most prominent.
The Macedonia Empire
At the death of his father Philip II, m Alexander the Great became king of Macedonia.
After a series of battles, the last being the n battle of Arbela, Alexander overthrew the Persian Empire. The Persian Empire collapsed and on its remains Alexander forged a new empire. Alexander ruled a great dominion and did as he willed.
o Alexander died of fever in Babylon and thereafter his entire family was murdered. Cassander murdered Philip II’s half-witted illegitimate son p Philip Arrhidaeus and also the child q Alexander IV, Alexander’s posthumous child by Roxanna.
Alexander’s generals fell to leaguing and warring amongst themselves. In 301 BC after the r battle of Ipsus the resulting fourfold partition of the Empire was as follows:- Cassander ruled Greece and Macedonia. Lysimachus ruled Thrace and Asia Minor. Seleucus ruled Syria and Babylon. Ptolemy ruled Egypt.
The Ptolemaic and Seleucid Kingdoms
In 305 BC s Ptolemy I Soter assumed the title king of Egypt while t Seleucus I Nicator became king of Babylonia. Seleucus obtained the whole of Syria and the greater part of Asia Minor as his territory, his dominion becoming greater than that of Ptolemy. (explained in detail – Chapter 8)
u Antiochus II Theos and v Ptolemy II Philadelphus formed an agreement of peace. Antiochus divorced and banished his wife Laodice and married Berenice the daughter of Ptolemy.
Later, w Antiochus unwisely brought Laodice out of banishment. Laodice determined to secure her position and poisoned Antiochus. Partisans supporting Laodice then murdered Berenice, Berenice’s son by Antiochus, and also her retinue. By this action Laodice secured the throne for her own son a Seleucus II Callinicus.
b Ptolemy III Euergetes brother of Berenice, aroused by the murder of his sister, c invaded Syria, put to death Laodice and proceeded as far as Babylon, taking the city of Seleucia.
Ptolemy plundered the Seleucid kingdom, and recaptured the statues of Egyptian gods originally taken from Egypt by the Persians. The Egyptians, wholly given to idolatry honoured Ptolemy for the return of their lost gods. Seleucus Callinicus died in exile.
Ptolemy, having possession of the whole kingdom of Seleucus, was recalled to Egypt by a domestic sedition.
Having lost their possessions and territory, the sons of Seleucus II assembled armies so as to re-take their kingdom. d Seleucus III Ceraunus reigned a short period and after him reigned his brother e Antiochus III Magnus (the Great). Antiochus f retook Seleucia and recovered Syria. He defeated the Egyptian general Nicolas and continued to the borders of Egypt (even considering invading Egypt itself).
g Ptolemy IV Philopator gathered his forces against the threat which Antiochus now posed against him. h Antiochus advanced south with a large army consisting of 62,000 foot soldiers, 6,000 horses and 102 elephants and met Ptolemy in battle at Raphia on the plains of Gaza. Despite the multitude that Antiochus had set forth Ptolemy won the victory.
Ptolemy occupied Judea, where he offered sacrifices in Jerusalem and had to be restrained from entering the Most
After the battle of Raphia the peace agreement made between Ptolemy and Antiochus lasted fourteen years. During this time Antiochus gathered many forces and acquired great riches in an eastern expedition. Ptolemy died of debauchery and was succeeded by his infant son
Philip of Macedon and Antiochus conspired together to partition Egypt’s Asiatic and Aegean possessions amongst themselves. However Roman j diplomatic intervention on behalf of the young king determined that he should be protected from the ruin they had devised for him.
In this chapter the Romans feature more prominently than any other people. Their first interference in the affairs of these kingdoms is here referred to as being the establishment (or demonstration) of the truth of the vision, which predicted the existence of such a power. They are referred to as the “robbers of thy people” because the Romans would destroy the Jewish nation and remove the Jews from their own land.
The Roman Senate entrusted the tuition of the young Egyptian king (Ptolemy Epiphanes) to M. Emilius Lepidus. The famous Aetolian general (Scopas) was enlisted to protect Egypt against the threatened invasion of Philip and Antiochus. Scopas raised an army and invaded Syria and Palestine.
Antiochus took rapid steps to recover Syria and Palestine from Scopas, meeting him in k battle at Panion near the source of the Jordan. Antiochus gained the victory, re-took Judea and besieged Scopas in Sidon. The Egyptians were unable to break the siege and Scopas surrendered, returning to Egypt in shame.
Daniel was shown the invasion and counter-invasion of
Jews – God’s chosen people).
Having introduced the Romans, by their first intervention in eastern affairs, the prophecy now passes from the remaining Seleucid kings to their conquerors, the Romans.
Pompey the Great
In 65 BC a Pompey the Great deprived Antiochus XIII Asiaticus of his possessions and Syria became a Roman province. b Pompey conquered Judea and captured Jerusalem, killing 12,000 Jews.
c Ptolemy XII Auletes was restored to the throne of Egypt with the assistance of the Roman army. d Ptolemy before his death proclaimed Ptolemy XIII and his sister-bride Cleopatra VII co-regents however discord between them led to civil war in Egypt.
In Rome e Pompey began a campaign of intrigue against Julius Caesar, and ultimately openly opposed Caesar’s ambitions. f A state of war was declared between Pompey and Caesar. Caesar returned from Gaul and gathered support in Italy. Pompey crossed the Adriatic Sea. Caesar followed and besieged Pompey in Dyrrhachium. Pompey broke out and Caesar was forced to retreat into Thessaly.
The two armies then met in the g battle of Pharsarlus in Thessaly. There Caesar was victorious and Pompey fled to Egypt where Ptolemy XIII h treacherously murdered him in an attempt to gain the support of Caesar.
Julius Caesar followed Pompey to Egypt to prevent Pompey from gathering further support from his loyal forces in the Empire.
i Caesar entered Egypt in the midst of its civil war (the only part of Alexander’s former kingdom not yet subject to the Romans) with the intention of gaining political control over it.
Caesar arbitrated between brother and sister (Ptolemy XIII and Cleopatra VII) decreeing that they both should reign jointly as their father enjoined. Cleopatra secured an audience with Caesar by artifice and won his favour. However the Egyptians, in support of Ptolemy, rose up against Caesar. An army of 20,000 Egyptians besieged Caesar and his small force of 4000, in Alexandria.
Hard pressed, Caesar sent word to Antipater, the governor of Idumean, for assistance. Antipater sent soldiers and initiated a campaign to win support for Caesar in the large Jewish community of Alexandria.
j Caesar at length crushed the Egyptian uprising and Ptolemy fled, drowning in the Nile. Caesar proclaimed Cleopatra queen of Egypt and Egypt became a Roman province.
Caesar commenced an illicit affair with Cleopatra and they spent two months cruising down the Nile together. Cleopatra became Caesar’s mistress in Rome but at his death fled back to Egypt (after which Mark Antony and Cleopatra became lovers).
Caesar left Egypt and made war upon Pharnaces, king of the Cimmerian Bosphorus. Caesar defeated him in
When l Caesar returned to Rome he received many honours and a ten-year dictatorship. Thereafter he was
After Julius Caesar’s death military support split three
Brutus and Cassius seized the eastern part of the empire, while Octavian, Mark Antony, and Marcus Lepidus formed the a second triumvirate.
Antony and Octavian made war against the Republicans (Brutus and Cassius). In Macedonia Antony defeated Cassius at the b battle of Philippi, and later defeated c Brutus. Both Cassius and Brutus committed suicide.
d Mark Antony received the eastern portion of the empire including Egypt as his territory.
e Marcus Lepidus was excluded from the triumvirate which was later f dissolved.
In the naval g battle of Actium Octavian defeated Mark Antony and succeeded as the sole ruler of the Roman Empire.
In 27 BC the h Roman senate conferred upon Octavian the title Augustus Caesar and recognised his supreme authority. Augustus taxed the world in the days of the birth of Jesus. (Luke 2:1).
i Augustus contracted an illness and died peacefully at Nola.
Augustus, shortly before his death, j appointed his step-son Tiberius as successor in 12 AD. Tiberius was not Augustus’ first choice for succession, but Augustus was constrained through lack of heirs, and prevailed upon by his wife Livia.
k When Augustus died, Tiberius succeeded peacefully as emperor. Tiberius led a life of depravity and drunkenness. He was an unpopular emperor and lived as a recluse.
At the news of the apparent death of Tiberius, Caligula was greeted by a crowd of supporters as emperor. Embarrassingly Tiberius revived but was l suffocated by Macro, the pretorian prefect.
m The ministry of John the Baptist commenced in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar (Luke 3:1-3). Taken from the year of his succession in 12 AD, the fifteenth year of Tiberius was 27 AD. Six months after John’s ministry, Christ n began the confirmation of the covenant in 27AD. His ministry lasted 3 1/2 years until He was o crucified in 31AD. (Dan 9:26,27).
The Roman Empire
Having identified Jesus Christ (the prince of the covenant) the prophecy now reverts to where the Jewish people first became involved with Rome, showing what would be the ultimate outcome for both the Jewish nation and Rome.
In 161 BC a p league of assistance was made between the Jews and the Roman people. The Romans were then only a small people without vast territories.
Rome acquired vast provinces and territory through peaceful means (via treaties and alliances). Through the use of craft and policy, Rome was able to dictate the affairs of nations. This was something altogether new, because prior to the advent of Rome, each empire had obtained its territory through wars of conquest.
q A Time = 360 Years.
In prophecy a day is given for a year therefore “a time” represents 360 literal years (see Dan 7:25). The “time” was the q period that Rome was to forecast devices or enact policy from its capital.
The event that locates the start date for the 360 years is the r battle of Actium fought in 31 BC. The battle and its
The event that locates the end date is the a removal of the seat of the empire from Rome to Constantinople by Constantine the Great in 330 AD (verse 29).
Octavian brought Mark Antony and Cleopatra to
Mark Antony and Octavian had both aspired and intrigued for universal dominion while maintaining a false alliance. Antony attempted to cement relations with Octavian, by c marrying Octavian’s sister Octavia. However Antony d deserted Octavia to resume his love affair with Cleopatra, eventually e divorcing Octavia.
f Octavian entered Egypt in 30 BC and, after Antony and Cleopatra had both committed suicide, he returned to Rome triumphant with the honours and riches he had gathered from Egypt.
The Jewish Rebellion
The part of the prophecy that deals with the start and end of the “time” also digresses to include the g destruction of the holy land. Before this event took place, the intervening Roman emperors were Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero.
h Vespasian was appointed by Nero to command in
j Titus besieged Jerusalem and Jerusalem fell. Over a million perished during the war. Titus returned to Rome triumphant, and the Jews that had rejected Christ were cut off from their own land.
The Decay and Fall of Rome.
At the k time appointed (or the end date of the 360 years) the seat of the empire was removed from Rome to Constantinople. This event signalled the decline and eventual downfall of the Western Roman Empire.
The “return” from Rome to Constantinople, is not one of glory and conquest but was one that leads to the demoralisation and ruin of Rome. On the l death of Constantine the empire is divided, and soon after the barbarians of the north began their m depredations upon the Roman Empire.
Chittim is the ancient name for Cyprus settled by the Phoenicians. These migrated west creating a civilisation in Africa and Spain. The Vandals now occupied this territory and during his reign, n Genseric king of the Vandals waged naval warfare upon the Roman Empire. The provinces of Rome were ravaged and o Rome itself was pillaged for 14 days.
The attacks of the Vandals grieved the Roman people and desperate efforts were made to dispossess Genseric of the sovereignty of the seas. The p Western emperor Majorian made the first effort and q Eastern emperor Leo I was to “return” in the second, however both were utter failures.
The Rise of the Papacy.
The enemies of Papal Rome, the Goths, embraced the heretical Arian faith. It was especially for the purpose of
The Catholic Emperors of the Eastern Empire were to “return” to assist the Papacy in her efforts to put down the heresy of Arianism. The Eastern Emperors were the ones primarily responsible for the destruction of the three barbarian nations, which adhered to Arianism. These are also described as three horns plucked up in Dan 7:8,20,24. They were the a Heruli (uprooted by Catholic emperor Zeno), the b Vandals and the c Ostrogoths (uprooted by Catholic emperor Justinian).
Rome, the sanctuary of strength, was desecrated by the assaults of the barbarians. In 410 AD the Visigoths, (led by Alaric), d sacked Rome, e the Vandals (led by Genseric) in 455 AD did the same. Finally in 476 AD the Heruli (led by Odoacer) began a revolt in which they f captured Rome.
From Paganism to Catholicism.
“Sacrifice” is a mistakenly supplied word that has no part in this verse. Paganism is the daily or continual desolating power here referred to (see Dan 8:12).
The daily [Paganism] was taken away by the barbarian nations (most importantly the Franks) of Western Rome that g gave up their paganism in favour of Catholic Christianity. In 496 AD h Clovis, King of the Franks converted from paganism to Catholic Christianity. He championed the Catholic cause against the Arian Gothic
With the support of the Franks the bishop of Rome attained a position of strength and influence in the west. In 533 AD the Eastern Emperor, Justinian, sought the support of the bishop of Rome in his war against the Vandals. This he gained by k decreeing that the bishop of Rome was to have the supremacy of the Pontificate. The l decree went into effect in 538 AD when Arian Goths were finally destroyed in Italy.
The decrees of Popes and the decisions of Papal councils did violence to the doctrine of the Bible and corrupted the truth. The Pope encouraged the bestowment of wealth, position, and honours upon himself.
During the Dark Ages that ensued, those that resisted the Papacy died by the sword and the faggot (burnt at the stake). Most prominent among the people of God who resisted the Papacy were the Waldenses, Albigenses, and Huguenots. Their exploits were valiant, both in their missionary endeavours and through the persecution they suffered. The “many days” referred to the m time of Papal persecution, which lasted 1260 years.
The Protestant Reformation.
The German states, n first to espouse the Protestant cause, protected the Reformers from the wrath of the Papacy. The Reformation took hold in much of Europe: Switzerland, Germany, Holland, England and provided the Reformers with the “little help” mentioned. Many however embraced the Protestant cause with unworthy motives and through self-interest.
Although restrained by the Reformation, Papal persecution continued against the Protestant Reformers until “the time of the end” in 1798. At the o “time
At this juncture in the prophecy we reach the time of the end which begins in 1798. The 2300 days are to reach their fulfilment during the time of the end. “At the time of the end shall be the vision” (Dan 8:17). Gabriel now begins to show Daniel in minute detail the events (verses 36-44) surrounding the time of the end (1798), these events defining the time during which the 2300 days were to be fulfilled.
In Dan 11:35 we are brought to the time of the end (1798) and again in Dan 11:40. Thus we can conclude that the prophecy now reverts to events prior to 1798 bringing us forward again to that same year. The events of Dan 11:36-39 meet their fulfilment in events occurring a little before the year 1798.
The French Revolution.
A certain wilful king or kingdom is here described. This is the French republic, which through its declared atheism had no regard for “any god” (verse 37). The “speaking” of a nation is the action of its legislative and judicial authorities. France, in the b reign of terror of 1793 by national decree, declared itself an atheist republic and fully denied the existence of the Deity. The Bible was forbidden and the churches desecrated and closed. France as a nation most boldly lifted her hand in rebellion against God.
The marriage institution was declared to be nothing
Left to the master of her own choosing, godless France soon fell into anarchy. The rulers of France, afraid of losing their power in the great tumult, introduced the worship of the c goddess of Reason in an effort to control the people and provide them with an object of worship. The sacrilegious ceremonies of the goddess of Reason first carried out in Paris were repeated throughout France in the strongholds of the nation. Revolutionary tribunals confiscated two thirds of the landed estates in France, with the proceeds flooding the French treasury and funding the French government.
The d French revolution as prophetically described in Rev 11:3-13 marks exactly the same time, as does Dan 11:36-40. It marks the end of the 1260 years, both prophecies clearly defining when “the time of the end” should begin (1798 AD).
The next verse re-introduces the king of the north and king of the south. The locality of these powers can not be any different from where they were first located in the beginning of the vision for there is nothing at all to indicate a change. Therefore we look to the south – Egypt, and to the north which was then occupied by the Ottoman Empire.
“At the time of the end,” in the year 1798, Napoleon Bonaparte received the e supreme command in the war against Britain, which was to be struck indirectly through Egypt. Napoleon landed in Alexandria with 232 ships, 2,000 cannon and 32,300 soldiers. f Alexandria was taken and fortified. In the g battle of the Pyramids the Egyptian Mamelukes were defeated by Napoleon’s disciplined French legions. Napoleon captured Cairo and Egypt capitulated with only feeble resistance.
The British Admiral Nelson h discovered the French ships in one of the mouths of the Nile at Aboukir Bay and there boldly sank them cutting off the French army from
The Ottoman sultan, Selim III a declared war upon France. Napoleon, desiring to secure his position,
Russia and the Ottoman Empire established an alliance with the British, and the Mediterranean Sea came under virtual British control. English and Russian vessels supported the Turkish fleet.
The Turks pursued the French through Palestine, which was conquered and fell into their oppressive hands. The Turks however, did not conquer the countries east of Jordan.
The Turkish fleet landed 18,000 men at Aboukir in Egypt. Napoleon immediately attacked and routed them, re-establishing French authority in Egypt. However, severe reverses to the French armies in Europe called d Napoleon home to look after the interests of his own country.
In France Napoleon joined a conspiracy, in which
Napoleon reversed the work of the French Revolution. He f re-opened the churches for Christian worship and released the ministers of religion from French prisons. In 1801, Napoleon g re-established the Catholic church as a state church.
The Ottoman Empire.
In 1801 the British resolved to wrest Egypt from the French. They h landed troops at Aboukir forcing the French to retreat. The Turkish fleet brought reinforcements and the Grand Vizier (The Ottoman General) approached from Syria with a large army of 20,000 men. The French were surrounded in Cairo and there i capitulated. After the French evacuated Egypt, the Mamelukes struggled with the Turks for power. j Massacres at Cairo in 1805 and 1811 destroyed the power of the Mamelukes.
The Turks, rather than interfere in the affairs of Egypt, laid a heavy tribute upon them. The Libyans and Ethiopians (unconquered Arabs) also paid tribute to gain the support of the Ottoman Turks.
The declining Ottoman Empire was troubled by both Persian and Russian hostility. Russia proved to be the more aggressive party.
In the Russo-Turkish War, Russia first k gained control of the northern coast of the Black sea. Next, seeking political influence in the Balkans, the Russians l captured Adrianople and advanced on Constantinople. The Turks
Russian efforts to take advantage of the continuing decay of the Ottoman Empire threatened the balance of European power in the east and ultimately led to the
At the conclusion of the Russo-Turkish War the
The last verse of Daniel 11 (Dan 11:45) is not yet fulfilled. So where do we look for its fulfilment?
In the vision of Daniel 11 and 12 the “king of the south” (Dan 11:5-15,25,40) is, in all cases, the power that occupies Egypt (the land south of Palestine). In Dan 11:5-15 the power occupying Egypt was the Ptolemaic dynasty. In Dan 11:25 it was the Roman power under the leadership of Mark Antony. While in Dan 11:40 it was the Mamelukes who ruled Egypt as client kings of the Ottoman sultan.
From this we can conclude that “king of the north” must be whatever power occupies the territories of Asia Minor, Syria and Mesopotamia (the land north of Palestine). In Dan 11:6-15 it was the Seleucid dynasty, while in Dan 11:40 it was the Ottoman Turks.
Today, the Ottoman Empire no longer exists and the modern nations of the Moslem World (most importantly Turkey, Syria and Iraq) now occupy the territory of the king of the north. Dan 11:45 seems to indicate that these nations will support the Palestinians to occupy Jerusalem and declare it their capital. This would raise tensions to the point of war. The Western powers would then be drawn into a conflict in the Middle East that would result in a catastrophic end of the Moslem nations (Turkey, Syria and Iraq) north of Palestine. With the destruction of these nations, will come the close of mankind’s probation
Further to this we can add Rev 16:12 which describes the consumption of the Moslem nations (Turkey, Syria and Iraq) that now occupy the watershed of the Euphrates river. The drying up of the waters of this river represents desolation of the peoples of the region.
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